An INCREMENTAL backup at level 0 backs up all data blocks in data files being backed up. All backups that create backup sets can create compressed backup sets.
You can offload primary database backups onto any standby database in the environment; the RMAN backups are interchangeable.
Note: If you rename a tablespace, then RMAN detects that the tablespace has changed its name and updates the recovery catalog on the next resynchronization. When you use RMAN, copies are recorded in the RMAN repository and are more easily available for use in restore and recovery. This option is a convenient way to back up only the new data files. RMAN can execute each independent step on any channel allocated for a specific device.
RMAN can duplex backups to either disk or tape, but cannot duplex backups to tape and disk simultaneously. Note: You cannot use KEEP UNTIL with PLUS ARCHIVELOG.
backup encryption, a guide to its use, and information on choosing among different The checkpoint SCN value specified in the FROM SCN parameter should be same as the BACKUP_CHECKPOINT value in the VSS backup metadata document.
Creates backup sets on the specified device.
You can then use RECOVER COPY OF WITH TAG to apply level 1 backups to this copy. If the instance is started with a server parameter file, then RMAN also includes this parameter file in the backup. The database performs checks when attempting to create a level 1 incremental backup to ensure that the incremental backup is usable by a subsequent RECOVER command. When the number of files in each backupSpec exceeds the FILESPERSET setting, then RMAN splits the files into multiple backup sets accordingly. Specifies the media pool in which the backup is stored.
If the target database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then the database must be mounted after a consistent shutdown when you make the backup. The RMAN behavior is illustrated by the following BACKUP commands: In the first command, RMAN places data files 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 into one backup set and data files 8 and 9 into another backup set.
You can improve incremental backup performance by enabling block change tracking on a primary or standby database. Typically, a tag name is a meaningful name such as MON_PM_BKUP or WEEKLY_FULL_BKUP.
You can also place it after individual backupSpec clauses to cause only backups for those objects described by the backupSpec to be subject to the limitation.
RMAN can only generate image copies when AUXILIARY FORMAT is specified. Note: If you run BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL, or if the specified log range includes logs from prior incarnations, then RMAN backs up logs from prior incarnations to ensure availability of all logs that may be required for recovery through an OPEN RESETLOGS. Creates a backup of all data files in the database. Use a comma-delimited list to specify multiple PDBs. Refer to notBackedUpSpec::= for the syntax diagram.
Copies the data blocks used since the most recent level 0 backup (see Example 2-16).
The state of the standby database when the backup is made determines whether the backup is consistent or inconsistent. Note: A tag is an attribute of each backup piece in a given copy of a backup set (for ASBACKUPSET) or each image copy (for ASCOPY). RMAN backs up the server parameter file currently in use by the target database.
When backing up archived redo log files, RMAN can perform archived log failover automatically.
If you specify a transportable tablespace explicitly when any of the conditions is not met, then RMAN issues an error saying that the tablespace does not exist.
Any inaccessible files are skipped.
Among the checks performed are: A level 0 backup must exist for each data file in the BACKUP command as the base backup for an incremental strategy.
RMAN channels can process each step independently and in parallel, with each channel producing one section of a multisection backup set. Note: You cannot specify an Oracle Managed Files file name as the format for a backup.
For example, if you make a level 0 database backup followed by 7 differential incremental backups, then the block change tracking file now includes 8 bitmaps. If you do not specify TAG, then RMAN backs up the most recent data file copy for each data file in the tablespace.
Use AT ANY SCN to only back up new data files that have never been backed up.
The RMAN BACKUP command backs up the standby database exactly the same as a primary database, except that the backup takes place on the standby site. Example 2-30 Copying Archived Log From Operating System File to ASM, Example 2-31 Multisection Backup of Data Files as Image Copies.
You cannot specify PLUS ARCHIVELOG when also specifying INCREMENTAL FROM SCN.
Note: When you use the BACKUP BACKUPSET command with encrypted backup sets, the backup sets are backed up in their encrypted form. If no such channel is found, then RMAN issues a warning and attempts a conventional (that is, non-proxy) backup of the specified files.
See "Incremental Backups" for an explanation of incremental backups. Creates traditional (non-sparse) backups of data files in a sparse environment, in the compressed backup set format. You can also specify the tag at the backupSpec level.
Optionally, specify the copies by tag name (for example, FULL_COLD_COPY). RMAN can transparently encrypt data written to backup sets and decrypt those backup sets when they are needed in a RESTORE operation. Note: Proxy PDBs are not backed up during a CDB backup.
The metadata required to plug the PDB into a different CDB is stored in the XML file specified using filename.
Otherwise, you must use the CATALOG command to add the user-managed copies to the RMAN repository so that RMAN can use them.
When backing up Oracle Database files to disk, the logical block size of the files must be an even multiple of the physical block size of the destination device.
Specifies a pattern for naming the output backup pieces or image copies (see Example 2-17).
This option is a convenient way to back up data files that were not backed up during a previous failed backup. When using incrementally updated backups, the level 0 incremental must be an image copy backup.
Next, you plug the tablespace in to the destination database by restoring the backup set specified in the DATAPUMP clause. Backs up only those archived redo log files that have not been backed up at least integer times. Note: You can also specify this parameter in the backupSpec clause.
To backup to disk, you must use the TO DESTINATION syntax outlined in toDestSpec. If RMAN locates a proxy-capable channel, then it calls the media manager to check if it can proxy copy the files. Options that are not shared in common with backupOperand are listed here.
This parameter is only relevant when BACKUP generates backup sets.
To transport tablespaces, the source and destination can use different endian formats. A recovery catalog is required when you are performing RMAN operations in a Data Guard environment. to BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG FORCE. The media managernot RMANdecides how and when to move data. Specify the tablespaces in the list by tablespace name (for example, users) or specify a particular copy by tag name (for example, 0403_CPY_OF_USERS). Creates a snapshot of the current control file and places it into one of backup sets produced by the BACKUP command.
You can use multiple format strings to specify different names and locations for the copies.
Use this parameter with the DEVICETYPE sbt clause to offload backups on disk to tape (as shown in Example 2-21).
If no level 0 backup exists when you run a level 1 backup, then RMAN makes a level 0 backup automatically. The tag_name is not case-sensitive.
The date_string is either a date in the current NLS_DATE_FORMAT or a SQL date expression such as 'SYSDATE-1'.
Specifies the pattern used to store the backup piece that contains the export dump file.
Vendors supporting SBT 2.0 must support file names up to 512 characters. To create multisection image copies or incremental backups, the COMPATIBLE parameter must be 12.0.0 or higher.
RMAN populates the V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION view with any corruptions that it finds.
The NODUPLICATES option on the final BACKUP command indicates that only one copy of data file 2 is backed up.
Specifies a list of one or more data file copies, identified by the tag name.
See Also: keepOption for more information about backups made with the KEEP option.
By default, BACKUP generates backup sets. RMAN still checks each of the blocks to see whether the header has marked the block as unused.
In an application container, creates a backup of the files in the application root and all application PDBs.
For example, if a data file on a primary database was lost, you could CONNECT to the standby database as TARGET and the primary database as AUXILIARY, and copy an intact data file from the standby host to the primary host. Note: It is not necessary for the image copies that you are backing up to have been created by a single BACKUP command.
Note: This clause overrides backup optimization (CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION) and archived redo log file deletion policies (CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOGDELETIONPOLICY). Example 2-24 Creating an Incremental Backup for Refresh of a Standby Database.
This example creates a multisection backup of the data file users_df.dbf.
Specifies a file name pattern.
RMAN compresses the data written into the backup set to reduce the overall size of the backup set.
Specifies a range of archived redo log files to be backed up. RMAN enables you to back up sparse databases. You do not need to specify BACKUP DELETE INPUT when backing up the recovery area because the database automatically deletes log files based on the archived redo log deletion policy and other fast recovery area rules. You start the RMAN client, CONNECT to the primary database as TARGET, and then connect to the recovery catalog.
Forces RMAN to ignore backup optimization.
You can specify duplexing in multiple commands. This option is valid only when BACKUP is creating image copies. For example, you back up the database, but the instance fails halfway through. When unused block compression is applied, RMAN reads only the blocks that are currently allocated to a table.
The BACKUP ARCHIVELOG command only backs up one copy of each distinct log sequence number, so if the DELETE INPUT option is used without the ALL keyword, RMAN only deletes the copy of the file that it backs up. For each set of duplicate data file copies, the file with the most recent timestamp is selected. This clause cannot be used with the ALLOW INCONSISTENT clause. Refer to backupOperand::= for the syntax diagram.
This could include backing up a sparse data file, a tablespace containing some sparse data files, a PDB containing some sparse data files, and a CDB containing some sparse PDBs in the backup set or image copy format. Backups can be in the form of image copies or backup sets.
To back up the entire database for cross-platform transport, the source and destination platform must use the same endian format.
A level 1 incremental backup is either differential or CUMULATIVE.
Archived redo log files and data files are never combined into a single backup set.
Specifies one or more control file copies for backups.
Note: Unless the online redo log is archived at the end of the backup, DUPLICATE is not possible with this backup. If block change tracking is enabled, then the backups use the change tracking mechanism, which significantly reduces the time taken to create incremental backups.
Note: RMAN always creates multisection backups with FILESPERSET set to 1. The change tracking file maintains bitmaps that mark changes in the data files between backups. Backs up only those filesof the files specified on the BACKUP commandthat RMAN has never backed up for the same device type (see Example 2-28).
Therefore, you can restore this cross-platform backup only on the specified platform. When RMAN determines that a backup from the specified time window is available, it displays output like the following: If you place the NOT BACKED UP SINCE clause immediately after the BACKUP command, then it affects all objects to be backed up.