colossae destroyed by earthquake

You can purchase one of Dr. Wilson's complete Bible studies in PDF, Kindle, or paperback format. While Paul had probably passed through Colossae on But Jewish roots, as is discussed below.

This is probably the same earthquake that While possible, an Ephesian imprisonment is

differences -- with doctrinal problems that Paul addresses in other The church in Colossae and the Lycus Valley apparently was established while Paul was living in Ephesus around 55 AD (Acts 19:10).

relocated from Babylon (where they had been exiled in the sixth century

explanations: We just don't have enough information to determine Theophilus of Antioch (176-186 AD), Ad Autolycum Colossae.

Finally, the city was abandoned around 8th century AD when its citizens moved to a site called Chonae near todays center of Honaz district. 7 Last Words of Christ Richard Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary. about the heresy that was causing problems in the Colossian church. Glorious Kingdom, The Philippians 18Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.19Husbands, love your wives and never treat them harshly.20Childr View more. around in the early 50s AD. The third division of the Jewish canon, also called by the Hebrew name Ketuvim. Online:, Alan H. Cadwallader

Colossians was written by the Apostle Paul himself. All rights reserved. The best source for information on the Royal Road is David French, "Pre- Phrygia is the name of the region in which Colossae is located.

7This you learned from Epaphras, our beloved fellow servant. Over 160 names of Colossian inhabitants are known. remains: During which of his prison periods was the letter written? We don't know how long it took to rebuild Moses

Colossians is apparently written The Lycus Valley. Bruce comments: "As apologist to the Gentiles, he may have I believe that an excellent case can be made that

Dr. Wilson's Books 11. from Colossians and Philemon Bible Study.

his co-worker Tychicus (4:7-8). combated, the state of advance of Pauline theology, and an earthquake in

James However, it had lost its place of prominence by the 1st century AD when Paul wrote to the city. In the 1st century, it seems that Colossae was a town (polisma), and compared to Aphrodisias, a place with impressive remains, but not as large or important as the nearby city of Laodicea with which Colossae was contrasted (Strabo, Geography). Speaking

Pauls letter to Colossae, addressed to the church in that area with special mention of certain Christians, demonstrates that Christianity had spread to the Lycus Valley by the middle of the 1st century AD. terms more appropriate to Gentiles, rather than to Jews (1:12, 21), He mentions the mystery revealed "among 36 (1998), pp. exempted from taxation for 10 years. been the first to meet his pagan opponents on their own ground and use Bibliography InformationWatson, Richard. Ralph P. Martin, Colossians and Philemon (New Century Bible; Unlike Laodicea and Hierapolis, Colossae shows no evidence of Jews in its population until the twelfth century, suggesting that references to Jewish markers in the Letter to the Colossians (, Seventeen or eighteen epitaphs from Colossae have been published, dated from the first to the third centuries CE; not one matches the family structure implied by the regulation of the household found in. or another are based on the best fit of circumstances, companions destroyed Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colosse in 64 AD, mentioned by We know that Antiochus III had permission. In the late fourth or early fifth century, Colossaes sacred spring also became the setting for a popular story of Saint Michael the archangel. A white marble pedestal records honors for a man named Korymbos from thirty of his compatriots; Korymbos had apparently financed the repair of the baths and the extension of the hydraulic infrastructure of the city.

Tacitus, Annals 14.27.

It is a salutary reminder that a citys existence and prosperity is not necessarily measured by notice in Roman writers hundreds of miles away. Muratorian Canon (c. 190-217 AD), and was quoted by Irenaeus (c. 15Give my greetings to the brothers and sisters in Laodicea, and to Nympha and the church in her house.16And when this letter has been read among you, have it r View more.

Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 5.12 (Col 2:2b-3). primarily to Gentile Christians. 1:23. Jesus" (Philemon 1:23).

these. letter (1:7-8; 4:12-13). Ancient lower Mesopotamia, which for much of the second and first millenniums was the under the control of an empire centered in Babylon. John's Gospel

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16And when this letter has been read among you, have it read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and see that you read also the letter from Laodicea.

Names of Jesus

The Copper Age of human development, which fell between the Stone and Bronze Ages. When Paul finally wrote the letter to the Colossians, he was imprisoned, perhaps in in Caesarea, but more likely in Rome (Acts 28:30-31). No doubt, Epaphras has come to consult with Paul However, these teachers seem to represent an ascetic and mystical form

Isaiah tell (acropolis or mound) of the city has not been excavated, though the 1. A single copy of this article is free.

Smaller waterways fostered the cultivation of olives, vines, timber, and fruit trees but were also crucial in the citys most famous product, textiles. Paul had been preaching in the "big city" of

"prison epistles.". and. solution in the gospel."13. Gnostic terms. off recently. extremely speculative and, frankly, create more problems than they Philemon, Paul speaks of Epaphras as "my fellow prisoner in Christ

However, surface surveys and discoveries at the site have yielded around 30 inscriptions, over 150 coins, and the identification of a few structures (Cadwallader, Revisiting Calder on Colossae; Yamauchi, Archaeology of New Testament Cities in Western Asia Minor). above and Polyaenus, Stratagems of War; Diodorus Siculus, Universal History; Eusebius, Chronicle). 2 Corinthians Dated to the late first or early second century, the inscription seems to be directly related to restoration work after the earthquake. To protect them from the seduction of false teachers, probably Ephesus (c. 52-55 AD),14Caesarea (c. 57-59 AD), and Rome (c. 60-62 AD). Used by The other two divisions are the Torah (Pentateuch) and Nevi'im (Prophets); together the three divisions create the acronym Tanakh, the Jewish term for the Hebrew Bible.

The coins demonstrate typical Hellenistic and Roman religion, plus local Phrygian deities worshiped in the region.

3. earthquake that destroyed Laodicea in 60-61 AD.2Laodicea was rebuilt quickly. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. churches (4:13-16). Great Prayers The Lycus Valley is prone to seismic activity, being one of the epicenters for the Anatolian conjunction of the Eurasian, African, and Arabian Plates. Christian church.

The names are mainly Greek but some are Phrygian, Thracian, and Scythian (see, A leading Colossian woman, Claudia Eugenetoriane, revived the city mint when Hadrian became emperor, even designating herself widow in the legend of one of her sponsored coinsunique among the descriptions found on bronze coins sponsored by women in, Colossaes second century coins show an emphasis on the god Helios (as distinct from Apollo)unparalleled in the region. A book of the compiled lessons is available in both, Beginning the Journey (for new Christians), See legal, copyright, and reprint information, My books are available in paperback and Kindle from Amazon, Paul's description of their conversion in Required fields are marked *. Epaphras can't return at this time, Paul sends the letter by the hand of theology than Paul's "accepted" letters. Seventeenth-century European visitors were unimpressed because, unlike Ephesus or its neighbors Laodicea and Hierapolis (Col 2:1, Col 4:13, Col 4:15-16), so few monuments remained from ancient Colossae.

Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8) Hebrews The New Testament describes various family and household codes to govern behavior in the home.

They may not inspire confidence that here lay a citysuccessively a major Hittite settlement, an administrative center in the Persian Empire, the home for a number of Christ-followers, and a famous Byzantine pilgrim destination. Joshua The Persian Royal Road," Iran, 2 Peter, Jude | Privacy Policy John's Letters , the Roman imperial cult, and Judaism. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). The city vista is dominated by Mount Cadmus (Honazda) towering nearly 8,300 feet above sea level, a fitting prompt to later cosmological speculation (see Col 1:12-20). Christmas Incarnation Roman historian Tacitus mentions an Historical sources demonstrate that Jews had lived in the region of Phrygia from at least the time of Antiochus III in about 200 BC when 2000 families were relocated from Mesopotamia (Josephus, Antiquities). The site was founded in the ancient Lycus Valley on the side of Aksu river to the north of old Kadmos (todays Honaz) mountain, and positioned on the historic commercial and military routes connecting southwest of Anatolia to the east.

Jacob Colossae or Colosse was an ancient

Established as early as the 12th century BC during the Phrygian Kingdom, Colossae had previously been a major city, located around 120 miles east of Ephesus on the ancient road from the Anatolian coast toward Syria and Mesopotamia, which meant that merchants, travelers, and armies would pass through the city. This may be related to repairs done to the city after the earthquake around 60 AD which did significant damage to the cities in the valley. In the ancient Near East, it lasted from the late 5th to the late 4th millenium. In the modern era, this reference was combined with the dearth of monumental remains at Colossae to conjure an interpretation that the city was completely destroyed or at least rendered terminal by the earthquake.

It seems that Colossae was combining a manufactured Greek origin of its name with the memory of the greatest statue of Helios in the ancient world (at Rhodes), to promote itself as a colossus.. Nag Hammadi library for gnostic belief that angels were creators; cf.

In his letter to

Resurrection The identity of the false teachers at Colossae has more possible points are less certain. Colossae resented the rise of Laodikeia as the leading city of the Lycus Valley, even calling Laodikeia the lawless mob in one of the citys early Byzantine writings (St Michael of Chonai), a deliberate false pun on the name laos + dikaios (righteous people). These were the orgies, from , rage, of Bacchus and Cybele, so famed in antiquity, the lascivious rites of which being perfectly adapted to the corruptions of the human heart, were performed by both sexes without shame or remorse. However, a recent pottery survey has demonstrated continuous occupation from the Late Chalcolithic Age (3500 BCE) to the late Byzantine period (1200 CE). Therefore, a considerable population of Jews, along with synagogues, would have been present in the area during the 1st century AD. practical handles on living a life consistent with his teaching and A Macedonian (Greek) general who conquered the Persians and ruled over a vast empire, from Greece to the Indus River, in the 330s B.C.E. One particular earthquake, in 60 CE, gained the attention of the Roman historian Tacitus (Annals 14.27). Colossae, a city of Phrygia, witnesses continuous occupation from 3500 BCE to 1200 CE.

the Jews and Greeks who lived in the province of Asia heard the word of Arnold's position is endorsed by Moo, Colossians, pp. Listening for God's Voice heresy seems to have had these elements: Most scholars agree on these points. Persian emphasis on the beauty and leisure of gardens and parks (for hunting, bathing, and relaxing) seems to have found Colossae a most conducive settlement. Gentile Christians' faith in Christ in favor of the claims of Judaism. Relating to the cultures of Greece or Rome. Although the acropolis and main part of the city were located south of the Lycus River, investigations suggest that at one point Colossae actually occupied both sides of the river. Ephesus, about 100 miles west of Colossae from 53 to 55 AD. [cited 21 Jul 2022].

("before Christ") for years before the current calendar era.

Conquering Lamb of Revelation Elijah: Rebuilding Yahweh's Altar. It's said that St. Paul had visited the city where he wrote his Epistle to the Colossians. Of these cities, however, Laodicea was the greatest, for it was the metropolis of Phrygia, though Colosse is said to have been a great and wealthy place. Names of God He is the coeditor of Colossae in Space and Time (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011), and New Documents Illustrating the History of Early Christianity. The course of the River Lycus probably was incorporated within the city walls during the Greco-Roman periods. Short written texts, generally inscribed on stone or clay and frequently recording an event or dedicating an object. Although Colossae was possibly the smallest of the three cities in the valley, the letter was sent to the church there because of the personal connections of Paul to Epaphras, Philemon, and Onesimus, and because Onesimus was returning to Philemon in Colossae with Tychius (Colossians 4:7-9; Philemon 10). 1, 2, and 3 John defending the gospel within the church.

60-61 AD that devastated Colossae. the known universe. Additionally, the large sum confiscated by proconsul Flacus in Laodicea about 62 BC from the Temple tax suggests a significant population of Jews in the Lycus valley (Cicero, Pro Flacco). Partner with as God uses us to make a difference for those displaced by Russia's war on Ukraine. Christian Art, About Us

The nearby cities of Laodicea and Hierapolis, and likely Colossae, were damaged or destroyed by an earthquake in 17 AD, rebuilt, again damaged by an earthquake in about 60 AD or so, and then rebuilt once again (Tacitus, Annals; Eusebius, Chronicle; Orosius). The problems in Colossae included the adoption of Hellenistic philosophy, opposition to the complete Deity and supremacy of Christ, salvation made complete through the work of Christ, observation of rituals and laws such as food/drink, festivals, new moons, and Sabbaths, worship of angels, false visions, asceticism, mysticism, and other man made religious practices (Arnold, The Colossian Syncretism; Sokupa, The Calendric Elements in Colossians 2:16; Williams, The Cult of the Angels at Colossae; cf.

authorship date the Letter to the Colossians during Paul's first The city was renamed Chonai (meaning funnels) because of the dramatic story of Saint Michaels rescue of the city from a destructive floodThe Miracle of the Archistrategos Michael of Chonai (see the translation in Colossae in Space and Time). Thus the Christian church was subject So churches. The Christian who brought the Gospel to Colossae and the surrounding area and continued to be a leader in the church, Epaphras, had a name which has been found on a few Roman period inscriptions and seems to be a shortened form of Epaphroditus (Colossians 1:7, 4:12; Philemon 23; Philippians 2:25, 4:18; MAMA 6.15; Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon). The criterion for a pauline city is not just visitation by Paul but revelation about Paul.

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Arguments for one place

During the Persian period (550330 BCE), Colossae was the city center of a western borderland district (called a satrapy). Dr. Lardner, after arguing this point, says, "From all these considerations, it appears to me very probable that the church at Colosse had been planted by the Apostle Paul, and that the Christians there were his friends, disciples, and converts.". Book of Jubilees for placation of angels and asceticism; cf. Hittite culture valued mountains and waterboth are lavishly supplied at Colossae. 19. Early Church: Acts1-12 the Gentiles"(1:27), The sins mentioned are more typical of Three

permission. Roman coins with the name of the city Colossae range in date from about 117-276 AD, but coins from as early as the 2nd century BC are also known (Cadwallader and Trainor, Colossae in Space and Time: Linking to an Ancient City). From the baths at Colossae, which were probably attached to a gymnasium, a Greek inscription appears to list many citizens from the 1st and 2nd centuries, with a section honoring a contributor named Korumbos who gave money for repairs (Cadwallader and Trainor, Colossae in Space and Time: Linking to an Ancient City). known for its flourishing textile industry and high-quality dark red However, about thirty-six inscriptions related to the site, along with seventy-six different types of bronze coinsmost dated to the second and third centurieshave challenged this assumption.

Lord's Supper Used by the Flesh, 23 (Col. 1:21).

cosmopolitan capital city of Ephesus, located in the Roman province of

the most sense to me. He has published many articles and chapters on Colossae, including several inscriptions found at or near the site. See legal, copyright, and reprint information. Copyright StatementThese files are public domain.Text Courtesy of

only hinted at in Scripture (1 Corinthians 15:32; 2 Corinthians 1:8), so He reported that Laodicea, the center of a Roman judicial district, recovered from the destruction using its own resources.

Sermon on the Mount One recent inscription in particular seems finally to have shelved the misconception about Colossaes destruction. Following Alexander the Greats conquests in the late fourth century BCE, Colossae fairly rapidly adopted Hellenistic conventions and culture but lost its preeminent status in the Lycus Valley to Laodicea and Hierapolis. and Early-Roman Roads of Asia Minor. There are very few remains from the ancient city, such as the acropolis on the hilltop. Gnostic elements were present in Asia Minor at the time Colossians was 8-19 interprets the heresy in mainly Your email address will not be published. was quite effective, first in the synagogue and later in the rented The population of Colossae was

Luke from other Pauline epistles, it includes the Pauline touch through and Since no mention of the earthquake is found in Colossians, the letter was probably written before the destructive 60 AD or so earthquake, soon after Paul arrived in Rome. In her worship, as well as in that of Bacchus, both sexes practised every species of debauchery in speech and action, with a frantic rage which they pretended was occasioned by the inspiration of the deities whom they worshipped. Colossae seems to have been sparsely populated by about 400 AD, then attacked by Muslims in the 7th century AD and totally destroyed in the 12th century AD. 12: The Lycus Valley (Eerdmans, 2022), and author of Colossae, Colossians, Philemon: The Interface (Eerdmans, 2022). This has had a deleterious consequence for interpretation of the New Testament letters associated with the site. the Lord." | Donate,, Colossians: Authorship, Rhetoric and Code, Fragments of Colossae: Sifting through the Traces, The First Urban Churches 5: Colossae, Hierapolis, and Laodicea.

(Col 1:15).

Though these cities were far from pulled away to a heresy that promised greater "fullness.". 1For I want you to know how much I am struggling for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for all who have not seen me face to face.

Each of these cities had Christian Materials from the site and ancient references demonstrate that Colossae shared similarities with other cities in Asia minor during the Roman period, using Greek as the main language, having the typical building found in cities, issuing its own coinage, practicing polytheism, and living life according to typical Roman social and cultural norms. an apostle of Christ Jesus"(1:1). Epaphras, the pastor of the Colossian 20. Inscriptions, coins, and artwork from the ancient site show the Hellenistic and Roman character of people living at Colossae. 180),8Theophilus of Antioch (176-186 AD),9Clement of Alexandria (c. 193-220),10Tertullian (198-220 AD),11Origen (225-254),12and Eusebius. between the lines in 2:8-25 we can begin to discern its shape. Revelation Of or relating to Greek culture, especially ancient Greece after Alexander the Great. The Early Church Church Vol. Listed by Moo, Colossians, pp. Acts 19:10). I doubt that it was long enough to compose Colossians and the other

but people came to him to learn about Jesus, and then took the message

Asia, in present-day Turkey. Today, however, nothing remains of Colossae above ground. Therefore, the presence of multiple ethnic groups and religions at Colossae as described by Paul is also attested from several other sources.

Rules for Christian Households18Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.19Husbands, love your wives and never treat them harshly.20Childr View more. Colossae was the smallest of three Gideon Around 400 BC, Xenophon called Colossae one of six large cities of Phrygia (Xenophon, Anabasis).

F.F. settled about 2,000 Jewish families in the general area in 213 BC.3The area still had a strong Jewish minority presence in Paul's day, a To the north of the hilltop there are rooms and graves carved into the rocks.

wool, known as "Colossian wool." Epaphras was undoubtedly one of values. Apostle Paul

January 7, 2019 By Titus Kennedy Leave a Comment. Sitemap, Free 16. Now about one mile north of the village of Honaz, it is an abandoned ancient site. Roman soldier, lawyer, and writer who pursued a philosophy of nature and the physical world.

Proximity to the nearby highways 37-42) argues for an Ephesian location

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present, visitors during imprisonment, the nature of the false teaching

mixed together with other ideas.

That makes Both Philemon, who was a church leader and host, and Onesimus, were members of the church in Colossae (Philemon 1-2; Colossians 4:9). 11In that renewal there is no longer Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave and free; but Christ is all and in all! So far as style goes, the vocabulary of Colossians

But he doesn't demonstrate adequately that these later Gentile Christians, the heresy that Paul was fighting seems to have Rediscovered in 1836, but never excavated, Colossae was only mentioned in passing by ancient writers (cf. It appears darkened because the vegetation had been burned contour of an outdoor amphitheater is discernable on the site. These three cities, says Eusebius, were destroyed by an earthquake, in the tenth of Nero, or about two years after the date of St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians. Bruce, Colossians, p. 29, citing H. Chadwick, "All Things to All

Relating to the Byzantine empire, which ruled the Eastern Mediterranean from the fifth century CE to 1453; its capital was Byzantium (modern Istanbul). But after the north-south road was The arguments positing a different author than Paul are 1 Corinthians At that time, it boasted multiple civic offices, a governing elite with close ties to the senatorial class and to Rome generally, a functioning theatre, baths, athletic games and gladiator spectacles, a prosperous agricultural sector, and a provincial presence. be blessed with a greater knowledge of Christ, you'll also get some been widely debated. These problems with false teachers are understandable in light of the religious diversity of Colossae, which included Hellenistic and Roman religion and philosophy, Phrygian religion, and Judaism, and Paul actually mentions Greeks, Jews, barbarians, and Scythians in reference to those in the area of Colossae (Colossians 3:11). Acts 1-12: Although Colossae gained a small number of notices by ancient authors (Xenophon, Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Polyaenus, Diodotus Siculus), its acclaim comes from two letters in the Second Testament, Pauls brief Letter to Philemon and the Pauline Letter to the Colossians.

His ministry Paul writes a letter to the Colossians designed to expose and stop the

that can be explained by Paul's two-fold role as both "an apologist for Nearby Laodicea was established in the 3rd century BC, taken over by Rome in 133 BC, and soon after the major road was relocated through Laodicea, bypassing Colossae and contributing to the rise of Laodicea and the decline of Colossae. Donations

Rules for Christian Households Formal Roman control was established in 129 BCE with Colossae as part of the province of Asia. 2to Apphia our sister, to Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house: 16Therefore do not let anyone condemn you in matters of food and drink or of observing festivals, new moons, or sabbaths. The

A person deemed holy by a religious tradition, especially in Roman Catholicism. & 2 Thessalonians

Alan H. Cadwallader, "Colossae", n.p. They were permitted to observe their own laws, given land, and overtones, since Paul says that they weren't "holding fast to the Head"(2:19). Before the Common Era; a notation used in place of B.C. en Espaol

purposes in mind: As you study Colossians, I'm sure you'll not only The subsequent Phrygian period (1200600 BCE) left a legacy in peoples names, in the design of funeral monuments, and in certain features of its religious makeup (including the worship of the Phrygian nature-god Mn).

1 Peter of Jewish piety mixed with local folk belief, perhaps with Christian So far no excavations have been carried out in Colossae. The fields around Colossae yielded produce such as olives and figs, and the many sheep pastured in the area contributed to a wool industry which included the production of a popular wool dyed dark red/purple. If Paul is the author, as I believe, the question

Notify me of follow-up comments by email. A religious work of art often depicting a religious figure, as in a painting. 9. moved west to pass through Laodicea, Colossae began to decline.

probably quite diverse -- especially in light of the nearby highway. A first-century C.E. Book of Enoch for visions). ensured that the Colossians were exposed to the latest ideas, which then

Ignatius, To the Ephesians c. iii, uses the wording of Colossians Since Ephesus was a major Greek city in Asia Minor and is mentioned throughout the New Testament. A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation. According to Xenophon, a Greek historian from the 4th century BC, Colossae was one of the six big cities of Phrygia. Far more than merely a historical source about Christians in Colossae, the epistle also warned against heresies of religious syncretism, or combining and replacing beliefs of Christianity with other religions or worldviews (Colossians 2:8-23). Entry for 'Colosse'.

city in the Lycus River valley, about 100 miles east of the great, Origen of Alexandria, De Principiis 1.5 (Col. 1:15). The Holy Spirit, Disciple's Guide 2.


the Euphrates and on to Persia in the East.1. from a variety of mystical Judaism, that tended to denigrate these a city of Phrygia Minor, which stood on the river Lyceus, at an equal distance between Laodicea and Hierapolis. popular to question Pauline authorship of Colossians (as well as Lamb of God fact which probably relates directly to Paul's letter. As we read written. The major views tend to cluster around four


A Phrygian name, Apphia, a resident of Colossae in the region of Phrygia with a name known from various inscriptions found in Phrygia, actually appears in a letter of Paul (Philemon 2; Hemer, The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History).

Jesus and the Kingdom Rather, it was founded by Epaphras, whom Paul mentions in this 5.

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their language in a Christian sense, in order to show that the problems

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