berber mythology gods


James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 4 p. 508. Those ancient historians stated that she was originally honored by the Berbers around Lake Tritonis where she has been born from the god Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, according to the Libyan legend. Here we talk about Atlas, as in the Atlas Mountains, Tingis, the ancient name of the city of Tangier and Antaeus who is linked to monuments near the city of Asilah. The Romans allied firstly with the Numidians against Carthage. They may even have had an ancient common central saharan origin.

Others call him the king of Mauretania, the Latin word for the ancient Maghreb, which stretched from present-day Algeria to Morocco. The first notable appearance of Libyan influence on the Cyrenaican-Greek beliefs is the name Cyrenaica itself. Depictions of this deity are found in several sites across northwest Africa. Transition Points: Helping Students Start, Change, How to help children through their school grades, Reinforcing Writing Skills for Back to School. When they realized that bodies buried in unsecured holes were dug up by wild animals, they began to bury them in deeper ones. The tombs of the early people and their ancestors indicate that the Berbers and their forebears (the Numidians and Mauretanians) believed in an afterlife. THE WOMENS MOVEMENT AND POLITICAL DISCOURSE IN MO 10 ARGAN OIL BENEFITS FOR HAIR AND SKIN, PREGNANCY. The Greeks influenced the eastern Libya pantheon, but they were also influenced by Libyan culture and beliefs. The Cyrenaican Greeks built temples for the Libyan god Ammon instead of their original god Zeus. Herodotus stated also that Poseidon (an important Greek sea god) was adopted from the Libyans by the Greeks. Carthage began to ally with the Berber tribes after the battle of Himera, in which the Carthaginians were defeated by the Greeks. The modern day Berbers may have believed that the Hesperides were situated in modern Morocco. See Robert Graves (The Greek Myths: I, 200 202. This worship is common to all the Libyans.[12]. Some Libyan kings, like Juba I, claimed to be the descendants of Sufax. The Berbers fought against the Romans and Byzantines. Generally, the Libyan-Greek relationships can be divided into two different periods. Herodotus wrote that the Aegis and the clothes of Athena are typical for Libyan woman. [22] Some depictions of the ram across North Africa belong to the lythic period which is situated between 9600 BCE and 7500 BCE. The Ancient Egyptians were the neighbors of the Berbers. The Greeks and the Libyans began to break their harmony in the period of Battus II. Berber mythology ruled the lives of Moroccans and neighboring Amazighs that inhabited North Africa. The Greeks seem also to have met the god Triton in Libya. An example is the inscription found in Souk Ahras (the birthplace of Augustine; Thagaste in Algeria) written "Solo Deo Invicto". But he was caught and killed and the image destroyed. He was the husband of the Berber goddess Tinjis. [20] He was honored by the Ancient Greeks in Cyrenaica, and was united with the Phoenician god Baal due to Libyan influence. Some of the ancient Amazigh beliefs still exist today subtly within the Amazigh popular culture and tradition. This god is hard to attribute to only one pantheon. The Eastern Libyans, Franc Cass Co. p. 260, John Morris, Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, John Robert: The prosopography of the later Roman Empire p. 612, A History of Christianity in Africa: from antiquity to the present, Elizabeth Allo isishei p. 36, M. Tullius Cicero (105-43 BCE): from On the Republic (Scipio's Dream), Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News: Number systems and calendars of the Berber population of Grand Canary and Tenerife by Jose Barrios Garca, Plutarch, The Parallel Lives: The Life of Sertorius. Pliny the Elder mentioned that nobody in Africa decided to do anything before prior invocation of Africa (The Latin name of Ifri). His wife Anchinoe, daughter of the Nile-god, Nilus, bore him the twins Aegyptus and Danaus and a third son Cepheus, and one daughter: Lamia, the Libyan Snake-goddess. In addition to political changes, the Carthaginians imported some of the Berber deities. [9] The Numidian pyramid in Tipaza is also known as Kbour-er-Roumia or Tomb of Juba and Sypax, mistranslated by the French colonists as Tomb of the Christian Woman. The Phoenicians were originally a Semitic people who inhabited the coast of modern Lebanon, and later also of Tunisia. [9] According to legend, it is the sepulchre of the mythical Berber king Antaeus. He emphasized that no other people worshipped Poseidon from early times apart from the Libyans who spread his cult: [..]these I think received their naming from the Pelasgians, except Poseidon; but about this god the Hellenes learnt from the Libyans, for no people except the Libyans have had the name of Poseidon from the first and have paid honour to this god always.[27]. Oric Bates. Some other Greek deities were related to Libya. He wrote: [..]They swear by the men among themselves who are reported to have been the most righteous and brave, by these, I say, laying hands upon their tombs; and they divine by visiting the sepulchral mounds of their ancestors and lying down to sleep upon them after having prayed; and whatsoever thing the man sees in his dream, this he accepts.[6]. It is composed of a circle of megaliths surrounding a tumulus. The Berbers and the death.. Do not have an account yet ? Generally, the Libyan-Greek relationships can be divided into two different periods. The honor of being buried in such a tomb appears to have been reserved for those who were most important to their communities. There were some Latin inscriptions found in Northwest Africa dedicated to the sun-god. Amazighs that inhabited this ancient part of the world believed in these myths, cherished its heroes and worshipped its gods for centuries. The name itself, Tanit, has a Berber linguistic structure. In the first period, the Greeks had peaceful relationships with the Libyans. The kingdom of Morocco Pioneering economic growth, HYPERMEDIA PROJECTS AND TAMAZIGHT (BERBER LANGUAGE). Westermarck had pointed out that many of the Berber religious and mythological principles were practiced mostly by Berber women under the disguise of Tomb Worship, where women regularly visit the tombs and perform various rituals in association with the ancient ancestors and the dead, such as receiving sacred prophecy through dreams obtained by sleeping in tombs of holy ancestors. They had war deities such as Gurzil and Ifri.

[18], Those Berbers supposedly did not eat the swine's flesh, because it was associated with Set, while they did not eat the cow's flesh, because it was associated with Isis. While this practice was known to the Ibero-maurussians, this culture seems to have been primarily a Capsian culture. [8] The Mauretanian pyramid is also known as "Kbour-er-Roumia" or "Tomb of the Roman Woman" mistranslated by the French colonizers as "Tomb of the Christian Woman". 1996. Brett, Michael, and Elizabeth Fentress. But that could be wrong since all historical evidences states that modern day Benghazi was originally named Euesperides which gave rise to the mythological associations of the garden of the Hesperides. The legend says that the mythological figure founded the city of Tangier and called it Tinjis to honor his mother. According to Pliny the Elder, the Libyans honored the war goddess Ifri or Africa, who was considered to be the protector of her worshipers (and seemed to have been an influential goddess in North Africa) and depicted her on the Berber coins. Therefore, it is sometimes supposed that some deities were originally worshipped by the Ancient Egyptians, and the Ancient Libyans (Berbers) as well. They swore by them and consulted them. She gave her name to the city Cyrenaica. Some legends tell that Athena/Neith was born around Lake Tritons (in modern Libya). The legend tells that Antaeus was the undefeatable protector of the Libyans. Herodotus wrote that the Aegis and the clothes of Athena are typical for Libyan woman. The highest megalith is longer than 5 meters. Gurzil was a war god who identified with the son of Ammon. The ancient Libyan Nasamons took oath at the graves of persons who were reputed for justice and transparency. The daughter of Zeus Athena was considered by some ancient historians, like Herodotus, to have been of Libyan origin. Bodies were usually buried in a fetal position. The Egyptians considered some Egyptian deities to have had a Libyan origin, such as Neith who has been considered, by Egyptians, to have emigrated from Libya to establish her temple at Sais in the Nile Delta. They later gave birth to the so-called Punic culture, which had its roots in the Berber and Phoenician cultures. [10], The monument of Msoura is the best-known megalithic monument in northwest Africa. Mohammed Mustapha Bazma, The Libyan influence on the Egyptian and Greek civilizations and their influence on the Libyan civilization. Son of Tinjis and Hercules, Sufax, also known as Sophax,Syphax,Sufaqs, was also a hero and a demigod. [9] The Tomb holds the graves of King Juba II and Queen Cleopatra Selene II, sovereigns of Mauretania. Religion Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Herodotus also stated that Poseidon (an important Greek sea god) was adopted from the Libyans by the Greeks. [8], Saint Augustine mentioned that the polytheistic Africans worshipped the rocks. Herodotus (Book IV 120) reported that the Libyans taught the Greeks how to yoke four horses to a chariot. [9] The megalithic culture may have been part of a cult of the dead or of star-worship. In addition to that, we also have Egyptian and Greek mythologies as a documented source, in which various references to Libyan mythology were preserved for generations to come, such as the worship of Amon, Ament, Antaeus, Bast, Nit, Poseidon and Shu. He emphasized that no other people worshipped Poseidon from early times apart from the Libyans who spread his cult: [..]these I think received their naming from the Pelasgians, except Poseidon; but about this god the Hellenes learnt from the Libyans, for no people except the Libyans have had the name of Poseidon from the first and have paid honour to this god always.[25]. Iarna was a Moorish ruler and a high priest of Gurzil. However, Dr. Budge (in addition to a few other scholars) believed that Osiris was originally a Libyan god saying of him that "Everything which the texts of all periods recorded concerning him goes to show that he was an indigenous god of North-east Africa, and that his home and origin were possibly Libyan."[20]. These social relationships were mirrored in their beliefs. They swore by them and consulted them. The Ancient Egyptians were the neighbors of the Berbers. Tifinagh-Tamazight, Winter Solstice 2015: 5 Facts To Know About The First Day Of Winter. While this practice was known to the Iberomaurusians, this culture seems to have been primarily a Capsian industry. Additionally, in 1958 University of Rome Professor Fabrizio Mori (1925-2010) discovered a Libyan mummy around 5,500 years old roughly a thousand years older than any known Ancient Egyptian mummy. [6] The tombs of the Numidian kings are among the most notable monuments left by the Classical Berbers. According to legend, it is the sepulchre of the mythic Libyan king Antaeus. The Laguatans personified Gurzil in a magical bull (taurus), which they let loose in battle, and thus he was associated with War. James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 4 p. 508. Some scholars distinguish the relationships between the Phoenicians and the Berbers in two phases: When Phoenicians settled in Northwest Africa, they stayed in the coastal regions to avoid wars with the Berbers. Cyre was, according to the legend, a courageous lion-hunting woman. It is also notable that some Egyptian deities were depicted with Libyans (ancient Libyan) characters. In addition to tomb-worship, complete traditions from the Berbers previous mythology remain alive in various traditions and festivals. [14] [9], The monument of Mzora (also spelled as Msoura) is the best known megalithic monument in northwest Africa. Battus II began secretly to invite other Greek groups to Libya, Tunisia and East Algeria. The goddess Lamia was believed to have originated in Libya, like Medusa and the Gorgons. Herodotus mentioned that the ancient Berbers (known to him as Libyans) worshipped the moon and sun and sacrificed to them. K. Freeman Greek city state- N.Y. 1983, p. 210. The ancient Greeks established colonies in Cyrenaica. Later, there were wars between them. This current practice, according to Herodotus, goes back to the ancient Libyan Nasamon Berbers, and it may even go back much farther in time since sacred traditions are indeed carried forward from previous generations. The Roman pantheon seems to have been adopted generally, although the cult of Saturn, as mentioned above, was perhaps the most important. The first notable appearance of Libyan influence on the Cyrenaican-Greek beliefs is the name Cyrenaica itself. [9], The moon is called Ayyur in the Berber language, a name shared with the Berber moon god.[11]. The most famous temple of Amun in Ancient Libya was the temple at the oasis of Siwa. Most gigantic creatures existed in northeastern Africa, including Modern Libya, e.g., the giant snakes, the Hydra and the Barbary Lions on the coast of Tripoli. [28] Battus II began secretly to invite other Greek groups to Libya.

Some scholars situate it in Tangier where Antaeus lived, according to some myths. Morocco, as part of North Africa, had a number of shared myths with Romans and Greeks. Feminine names begin and end with "T" in the Berber language. He tried to relate the pyramidal Berber tombs with the great Egyptian pyramids on the basis of the etymological and historical data. The Egyptians considered some Egyptian deities to have had a Libyan origin, such as Neith who has been considered, by Egyptians, to have emigrated from Libya to establish her temple at Sais in the Nile Delta. The Berbers and rocks.. The goddess Lamia was believed to have originated in Libya, like Medusa and the Gorgons. These pyramid tombs have attracted the attention of some scholars, such as Mohamed Chafik who wrote a book discussing the history of several of the tombs that have survived into modern times. This Blog is a mirror for the global culture. The Atlas mountain was worshipped by the Berbers and the Canary Islands represented to many the daughters of Atlas. [17], Osiris was among the Egyptian deities who were venerated in Libya. Therefore, early Carthaginians had two important Phoenician deities, Baal and Astarte. According to the aforementioned platform, this story is associated with Perseus, son of Zeus and slayer of the Gorgon Medusa. [2], The authors of the book The Berbers stated that the cult of the dead was one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Berbers in antiquity. [7] The tombs of the Numidian kings are among the most notable monuments left by the Classical Berbers. They sacrifice to the Sun and Moon, but not to any other god. The myth tells us that Zeus, god of the sky and thunder in Greek mythology, condemned Atlas to hold the heavens forever as a punishment. [24], The Greeks of Cyrenaica seemed also to have adopted some Berber customs and intermarried with the Berber women. It is also believed that Berbers who lived in North Africa worshipped these Atlas Mountains. Nevertheless, the Greeks were the victors. The Berber pantheon also contained multiple gods, known as the Dii Mauri, represented on reliefs and also the subject of dedications. " " " " Tifinagh Origin The Tifinagh alphabet is thought to have derived from the ancient Berber script . Be the first one to comment on our articles Yabiladi.com 2002 - 2022 - all rights reserved |. Brett, Michael, and Elizabeth Fentress p. 35. The name itself, Tanit, has a Berber (Tamazight) linguistic structure. : Atlas),[16] rocks, caves, and rivers.[17].

He was taken by the Berbers to their battles against the Romans. Archaeological research on prehistoric tombs in the Maghreb shows that the bodies of the dead were painted with ochre. The Berbers began to fight against the Greeks, sometimes in alliance with the Egyptians and other times with the Carthaginians. While some sources described Antaeus as the king of Irassa, Plutarch reported that the Libyans buried him in Tangier: In this city (Tangier) the Libyans say that Antaeus is buried; and Sertorius had his tomb dug open, the great size of which made him disbelieve the Barbarians(Plutarch, The Parallel Lives)[30]. The dead were also sometimes buried with shells of ostrich eggs, jewelry, and weapons. H. Basset, Les influences puniques chez les Berbres, pp 367-368. An example is the inscription found in Souk Ahras (the birthplace of Saint Augustine; Tagaste in Algeria) written as: Solo Deo Invicto. In addition to political changes, the Carthaginians imported some of the Berber deities. Apuleius stated as well that rocks were worshipped in the second century. Historians believe his cult was closer to that of Baal-Hammon than that of the Roman Saturn.[33]. In Awelimmiden Tuareg, the name Amanai is believed to have the meaning of "God". By all means the festival of Awessu is still alive today, not in Libya, but in nearby Tunisia where the inhabitants of Sousa (cf. Syncretic influences from the traditional Amazigh religion can also be found in certain other faiths. The Phoenicians were originally a Semitic people that once inhabited the coasts of modern Lebanon. Some historians believe that the myth of Antaeus was a reflection of those wars between the Libyans and Greeks. Archaeological research on pre-historic tombs in Northwestern Africa shows that the body of the dead were painted with red ochre. Even at Cyrene, the women think it wrong to eat the flesh of the cow, honoring in this Isis, the Egyptian goddess, whom they worship both with fasts and festivals. Feminine names begin and end with "t" in the Berber languages. Later, there were wars between them. The Barcaean women abstain, not from cow's flesh only, but also from the flesh of swine. There are also Massyle and Phoenician names that apparently contain roots from the god Baal, such as Adherbal and Hannibal. Besides residing in Morocco, the myth of this Greek giant is deeply linked to the country. Later, they buried the dead in caves, tumuli, tombs in rocks, mounds, and other types of tombs.[1]. Most of the Berbers ancestral doctrines also form an integral part of the jinn lore. The dead were also sometimes buried with shells of ostrich eggs, jewelry, and weapons. After making requests, they slept in their tombs to await responses in dreams.[4]. Tullius Cicero (105-43 BCE) also reported the same cult in On the Republic (Scipio's Dream): When I (Scipio) was introduced to him, the old man (Massinissa, king of Numidia) embraced me, shed tears, and then, looking up to heaven, exclaimed I thank thee, O supreme Sun, and you also, you other celestial beings, that before I departed from this life I behold in my kingdom, and in my palace, Publius Cornelius Scipio .[13]. The prehistoric people of northwest Africa buried bodies in little holes. [22], The Greeks of Cyrenaica seemed also to have adopted some Berber customs and intermarried with the Berber women. Corippus mentioned that the chiefs of the Laguata took their god Gurzil into battle against the Byzantines and Arabs. [25] Some of them continued worshipping Amun himself. The Berbers worshiped their kings, too. Helene Hagan, The Shining Ones: An Etymological Essay on the Amazigh Roots of the Egyptian civilization, p. 42. Samuel the Confessor appears to have suffered from the sun-worshiping Berbers who tried unsuccessfully to obligate him worshiping the sun. The Greeks influenced the eastern Berber pantheon, but they were also influenced by the Berber culture and beliefs.

He was the son of the god Poseidon and Gaia. According to ancient origins, Mzora was first described by the Roman general Quintus Sertorius in the 1st Century AD as he was told it was the tomb of Antaeus alegendary giantwho was slayed by the heroic demigodHerculesas one of his labors. The most famous temple of Ammon in Ancient Libya was the augural temple at Siwa in Egypt, an oasis still inhabited by Berbers.

These tombs evolved from primitive structures to much more elaborate ones, such as the pyramidal tombs spread throughout Northern Africa. However, Dr. Budge (in addition to a few other scholars) believed that Osiris was originally a Libyan god saying of him that "Everything which the texts of all periods recorded concerning him goes to show that he was an indigenous god of Northeast Africa (modern day Libya), and that his home and origin were possibly Libyan."[18]. The oldest language in the world. They later gave birth to the so-called Punic culture which had its roots in the Berber and Phoenician cultures. The early Carthaginians had two important deities, Baal and Astarte. The Libyans considered that as a danger that had to be stopped. According to Berber mythology, many Berber kings believed that they were the descendants of Sufax. Brett, Michael, and Elizabeth Fentress p. 35, Ouachi, Moustapha. When the Romans conquered Northwest Africa, she appeared in sculpture and on the coins of the Roman states in North Africa. Jupiter was also identified with the Libyan Amun[32], Another feared god was Saturn. The Ancient Libyans may have worshipped the setting sun, which was impersonated by Amon, who was represented by the ram's horns. Herodotus mentioned that the ancient Berbers worshipped the moon and sun and sacrificed to them. The most remarkable common god of the Berbers and the Egyptians was Ammon. She gave her name to the city Cyrenaica. Tripoli. The honor of being buried in such a tomb appears to have been reserved for those who were most important to their communities. He wrote: [..]They swear by the men among themselves who are reported to have been the most righteous and brave, by these, I say, laying hands upon their tombs; and they divine by visiting the sepulchral mounds of their ancestors and lying down to sleep upon them after having prayed; and whatsoever thing the man sees in his dream, this he accepts.[5]. The most recent influence came from Islam and religion in pre-Islamic Arabia during the medieval period. They had their heroes, gods and demigods that they worshipped and cherished. Herodotus (484 BCEca.425 BCE) noted the same practice among the Nasamones who inhabited the deserts around Siwa and Augila. The highest megalith is taller than 5 meters. Although most modern sources ignore the existence of Amun in Berber mythology, he was maybe the greatest ancient Berber god. Therefore, it is sometimes supposed that some deities were originally worshipped by the Ancient Egyptians and the Ancient Libyans as well. The Phoenicians of Lebanon were seafarers and they founded Carthage in 814 BC. Antaeus, buried in Msoura and married to a Moroccan goddess. This name was originally the name of a legendary (mythic) Berber woman warrior who was known as Cyre. Samuel the Confessor appears to have suffered from the sun-worshiping Berbers who tried unsuccessfully to force him to worship the sun. After the Moors where defeated he fled with the sacred image of Gurzil. Elizabeth Fentress, 1978, 'Di Mauri and Dii Patrii' Latomus 37, 2-16, H. Basset, Les influences puniques chez les Berbres, pp 367-368. These pyramid tombs have attracted the attention of some scholars, such as Mohammed Chafik who wrote a book discussing the history of several of the tombs that have survived into modern times. It is composed of a circle of megaliths surrounding a tumulus. The myth relates an interesting deception tale in which Danaus was sent to rule Libya where he had fifty daughters, and Aegyptus, who had fifty sons, ruled over Egypt. The monument was engraved with funerary inscriptions in the Berber script known as Tifinagh.[10]. M. Tullius Cicero (105-43 BCE): from On the Republic (Scipio's Dream), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traditional_Berber_religion&oldid=1086703983, Articles with Arabic-language sources (ar), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 7 May 2022, at 20:55. Carthage began to ally with the Berber tribes after the Battle of Himera, in which the Carthaginians were defeated by the Greeks. A considerable amount of the traditional lore of the matriarchal Berbers is still based on the worship of the Ancestors and the Dead. When Northwest Africa was annexed to the Roman Empire, the Berber began to worship the Roman deities like Jupiter who was known as Mastiman. [31] Augustine of Hippo mentioned that the polytheistic Africans worshipped the rocks. This worship is common to all the Libyans.[12]. Bodies were sometimes placed on one side and folder, while others where buried in a fetal position. These social relationships were mirrored in their beliefs. But this was not the only thing that linked the titan god to Morocco.

They maintained their deities which they brought from their homelands. There was among the ruins of Ghirza in Libya a temple, which may have been dedicated to Gurzil, and the name of the town itself may even be related to his name. The Eastern ancient Berbers worshipped Isis and Set. Awessu) take to the sacred sea only once a year: in the Awessu day, the only magical day of the whole year where the sea takes the shape of a black mirror reflecting the dazzling stars of the Sky. Those ancient historians stated that she was originally honored by the Libya around Lake Tritonis where she had been born from the god Poseidon and Lake Tritonis, according to the Libyan legend. Later, Baal was united with the Libyan god Amun to become Baal-Hammon. He was said to have communicated with believers in dreams, and Northwestern Africans venerated him with human sacrifices, Tertullian wrote that children were openly sacrificed to Saturn in Africa. Additionally, Fabrizio Mori discovered a Libyan mummy older than any comparable Ancient Egyptian mummy in 1958. The Romans allied firstly with the Massyle against Carthage. WHAT EVERY STATE IN THE U.S. IS WORST AT (INCLUDIN WORLD CULTURE: North Africans may have beaten Celt Les films vido en langue berbre ( tachelhite N S 5 Reasons Why Christmas is the Best Time of the Year, North Africans may have beaten Celts to Ireland, 10 Best Ways to Make Money from Home (Legitimate), History & Archaeological Evidence:Imazighn. When the Romans conquered Northwest Africa, she appeared on the coins of the Roman states in North Africa. Atlas, the heavens bearer and the king of Moroccos mountains. Some scholars situate them in Benghazi of Irassa where Antaeus lived, according to some myths. They later identified their supreme god Zeus with the Libyan Amun. Later, they buried the dead in caves, tumuli, tombs in rocks, mounds, and other types of tombs.[1]. In his book Morocco Footprint Handbook(Footprint Travel Guides, 2012), Julius Honnor reports that in Roman mythology, Antaeus is seen as the giant who challenged Hercules. [10] The megalithic culture may have been part of a cult of the dead or of star-worship. Herodotus (484 BCca.425 BC) noted the same practice among the Nasamones, who inhabited the deserts around Siwa and Augila. The traditional beliefs of the Berber people of North Africa have been influenced over time by contact with Ancient Egypt, Phoenicia] Judaism, and Hellenistic religion during antiquity, and notably by Islamduring the medieval period.

The Greeks seem also to have met the god Triton in Libya. The name could have been a name of a sea deity of some sort, since the associated rite is clearly a religious ceremony to attract the good and banish the bad. The Atlas mountain was worshipped by the Berbers. The prehistoric men of northwest Africa buried bodies in little holes. Even at Cyrene, the women think it wrong to eat the flesh of the cow, honoring in this Isis, the Egyptian goddess, whom they worship both with fasts and festivals. [16], Those Libyans supposedly did not eat the flesh of swine, because it was associated with Set, while they did not eat the cow's flesh, because it was associated with Isis.
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